This blog post shows how to write an OS like Rasbian Jesse onto a SD card for use in a Raspberry Pi.
Head over to the Raspberry Pi Raspbian download page. You can chose between Raspbian Jessie, or Raspbian Jessie Lite. The Lite version is "headless", meaning it doesn't have the UI installed. I don't need a UI so I downloaded the Lite.
Raspbian Operating System (A Linux distribution (a fork of Debian) for the RPi)
A SD card formatter
A program to flash the Raspbian software onto the SD Card
I went to the RaspberryPi download site and downloaded the half GB zip file (or torrent) of the Raspbian Wheezy distro, and extracted the image file. In order to format the SD, I downloaded an SD Formatter from the SD Association. In order to flash the SD, I downloaded a copy of Image Writer for Windows from Launchpad (click External Download).
To format the SD card, put the SD card in your computers SD card reader, open the SDFormatter program, select the correct drive, and click the "option" button to change FORMAT SIZE ADJUSTMENT to on, as per the RPi Quick Start Instructions (pg 3).
After formatting the SD Card with a single click through the SD Formatter program, I opened the Image Writer for Windows program (Type in "Win32 Disk Imager" to search for it), located the .img file for Raspbian, verified the correct drive, and clicked the Write button.
Edit: As I was doing this again recently, Image Writer failed with the following error message: "an error occurred when attempting to write data to handle error 23 data error (cyclic redundancy check)". I couldn't find too much on Google, but I reformatted again with the SD Formatter program and it worked on the second try.
After the write completed (5-7 minutes at 4Mbps), my G drive was then renamed boot (G:) .